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In industrialized countries, the consumption patterns of cities are severely stressing the global ecosystem while settlements in the developing world need more raw material, energy, and economic development simply to overcome basic economic and social problems. Human settlement conditions in many parts of the world, particularly the developing countries are deteriorating mainly as a result of the low levels of investments in the sector attributable to the overall resource constraints in these countries. In the low-income countries for which recent data are available, an average of only 5.6 per cent of central government expenditure went to housing, amenities, social security and welfare. 1/ Expenditure by international support and finance organizations is equally low. For example, only 1 per cent of the United Nations system's total grant-financed expenditures in 1988 went to human settlements 2/ while in 1991, loans from the World Bank and the International Development Association (IDA) for urban development and water supply and sewerage amounted to 5.5 and 5.4 per cent, respectively, of their total lending. 3/

7.2 On the other hand, available information indicates that technical cooperation activities in the human settlement sector generate considerable public and private sector investment. For example, every dollar of UNDP technical cooperation expenditure on human settlements in 1988 generated a follow-up investment of $ 122, the highest of all UNDP sectors of assistance. 4/

7.3 This is the foundation of the "enabling approach" advocated for the human settlement sector. External assistance will help to generate the internal resources needed to improve the living and working environments of all people by the year 2000 and beyond, including the growing number of unemployed - the no-income group. At the same time the environmental implications of urban development should be recognized and addressed in an integrated fashion by all countries with high priority being given to the needs of the urban and rural poor, the unemployed and the growing number of people without any source of income.

Human settlement objective

7.4 The overall human settlement objective is to improve the social, economic and environmental quality of human settlements and the living and working environments of all people, in particular the urban and rural poor. Such improvement should be based on technical cooperation activities, partnerships among the public, private and community sectors and participation in the decision making process from community groups and special interest groups such as women, indigenous people, the elderly and the disabled. These approaches should form the core principles of national settlement strategies. In developing these strategies, countries will need to set priorities among the eight programme areas in this document in accordance with their national plans and objectives taking fully into account their social and cultural capabilities. Furthermore, countries should make appropriate provision to monitor the impact of their strategies on marginalized and disenfranchised groups with particular reference to the needs of women.

7.5 The programme areas included in this chapter are:

A. Providing adequate shelter for all;

B. Improving human settlement management;

C. Promoting sustainable land use planning and management;

D. Promoting the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure: water, sanitation, drainage, hazardous and solid waste management;

E. Promoting sustainable energy and transport systems in human settlements;

F. Promoting human settlement planning and management in disaster-prone areas;

G. Promoting sustainable construction industry activities;

H. Promoting human resource development and capacity-building for human settlement development.


A. Providing adequate shelter for all

Basis for action

7.6 Access to safe and healthy shelter is essential to a person's physical, psychological, social and economic well-being and should be a fundamental part to national and international action. The right to adequate housing as a basic human right is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Despite this, it is estimated that at the present time, at least 1 billion people do not have access to safe and healthy shelter and that if appropriate action is not taken, this number will increase dramatically by the end of the century and beyond.

7.7 A major global programme to address this problem is the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000, adopted by the General Assembly in December 1988 (resolution 43/181, annex). Despite its widespread endorsement, the Strategy needs a much greater level of political and financial support to enable it to reach its goal of facilitating adequate shelter for all by the end of the century and beyond.


7.8 The objective is to achieve adequate shelter for rapidly growing populations and for the currently deprived urban and rural poor through an enabling approach to shelter development and improvement which is environmentally sound.


7.9 The following activities should be undertaken:

(a) As a first step towards the goal of "providing adequate shelter for all" all countries should take immediate measures to provide shelter to their homeless poor, while the international community and financial institutions should undertake actions to support the efforts of the developing countries to provide shelter to the poor;

(b) All countries should adopt and/or strengthen national shelter strategies with targets as appropriate based on the principles and recommendations contained in the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000. People should be protected by law against unfair eviction from their homes or land;

(c) All countries should, as appropriate, support the shelter efforts of the urban and rural poor, the unemployed and the no-income group by adopting and/or adapting existing codes and regulations, to facilitate their access to land, finance and low-cost building materials and by actively promoting the regularization and upgrading of informal settlements and urban slums as an expedient measure and pragmatic solution to the urban shelter deficit;

(d) All countries should, as appropriate, facilitate access of urban and rural poor to shelter by adopting and utilizing housing and finance schemes and new innovative mechanisms adapted to their circumstances;

(e) All countries should support and develop environmentally compatible shelter strategies at national, state/provincial, and municipal levels for through partnerships among the private, public, and community sectors and with the support of community-based organizations;

(f) All countries, especially developing ones, should, as appropriate, formulate and implement programmes to reduce the impact of the phenomenon of rural to urban drift by improving rural living conditions;

(g) All countries, where appropriate, should develop and implement resettlement programmes which address the specific problems of displaced populations in their respective countries;

(h) All countries should, as appropriate, document and monitor the implementation of their national shelter strategies by using, inter alia, the monitoring guidelines adopted by the Commission on Human Settlements and the shelter performance indicators being produced jointly by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) and the World Bank;

(i) Bilateral and multilateral cooperation should be strengthened in order to support the implementation of the national shelter strategies of developing countries;

(j) Global progress reports covering national action as well as support activities of international organizations and bilateral donors should be produced and disseminated on a biennial basis as requested by the Global Shelter Strategy for the Year 2000.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.10 The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about $75 billion, including about $10 billion from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order of magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation;

(b) Scientific and technological means

7.11 The requirements under this heading are addressed in each of the other programme areas included in the present chapter.

(c) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.12 Developed countries and funding agencies should provide specific assistance to developing countries in adopting an enabling approach to the provision of shelter for all, including the no-income group, and covering research institutions and training activities for government officials, professionals, communities and non-governmental organizations and by strengthening local capacity for the development of appropriate technologies.

B. Improving human settlement management

Basis for action

7.13 By the turn of the century, the majority of the world's population will be living in cities. While urban settlements, particularly in developing countries, are showing many of the symptoms of the global environment and development crisis, they nevertheless generate 60 per cent of gross national product and, if properly managed, can develop the capacity to sustain their productivity, improve the living conditions of their residents and manage natural resources in a sustainable way.

7.14 Some metropolitan areas extend over the boundaries of several political and/or administrative entities (counties and municipalities) even though they conform a continuous urban system. In many cases this political heterogeneity hinders the implementation of comprehensive environmental management programmes.


7.15 The objectives are to ensure sustainable management of all urban settlements, particularly in developing countries, in order to enhance their ability to improve living conditions of residents, especially the marginalized and disenfranchised, thereby contributing to the achievement of national economic development goals.


(a) Improve urban management

7.16 One existing framework for strengthening management is in the United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) Urban Management Programme (UMP), a concerted global effort to assist developing countries in addressing urban management issues. Its coverage should be extended to all interested countries during the period 1993-2000. All countries should as appropriate, and in accordance with national plans, objectives and priorities and with the assistance of NGOs and representatives of local authorities, undertake the following activities at the national, state/provincial, and local levels with the assistance of relevant programmes and support agencies:

(a) Adopt and apply urban management guidelines in the areas of land management, urban environmental management, infrastructure management and municipal finance and administration;

(b) Accelerate efforts to reduce urban poverty through a number of actions, including:

(i) Generate employment for the urban poor, particularly women, through the provision, improvement and maintenance of urban infrastructure and services and the support of economic activities in the informal sector, such as repairs, recycling, services and small commerce;

(ii) Provide specific assistance to the poorest of the urban poor through, inter alia, the creation of social infrastructure in order to reduce hunger and homelessness, and the provision of adequate community services; (iii) Encourage the organization of indigenous community-based organizations, private voluntary organizations, and other forms of non-governmental entities which can contribute efforts to reduce poverty and improve the quality of life for low-income families;

(c) Adopt innovative city planning strategies to address environmental and social issues by:

(i) Reducing subsidies on, and recovering full costs of, high standard environmental and other services (e.g. water supply, sanitation, waste collection, roads, telecommunications) provided to higher income neighborhoods;

(ii) Improving the level of infrastructure and service provision in poorer urban areas;

(d) Develop local strategies for the improvement of the quality of life and the environment, integrating decisions for land use and land management, investment in public and private sectors, as well as mobilize human and material resources, thereby promoting employment generation which is environmentally sound and protective of human health.

(b) Strengthen urban data systems

7.17 All countries should undertake during the period 1993-2000 with the active participation of the business sector as appropriate pilot projects in selected cities for the collection, analysis and subsequent dissemination of urban data including environmental impact analysis, at the local, state/provincial, national and international levels and the establishment of city data management capabilities. 5/ United Nations organizations such as Habitat, UNEP and UNDP could provide technical advice and model data management systems.

(c) Encourage intermediate city development

7.18 In order to relieve pressure on large urban agglomerations of developing countries, policies and strategies should be implemented towards the development of intermediate cities which create employment opportunities for unemployed labour in the rural areas and support rural-based economic activities, although sound urban management is essential to ensure that "urban sprawl" does not expand resource degradation over an ever wider land area and increase pressures to convert open space and agricultural/buffer lands for development.

7.19 For this purpose, all countries should, as appropriate, conduct reviews of urbanization processes and policies in order to assess environmental impacts of growth and apply urban planning and management approaches specifically suited to the needs, resource capabilities and characteristics of their growing intermediate-sized cities. As appropriate, they should also concentrate on activities aimed at facilitating the transition from rural to urban lifestyles and settlement patterns and at promoting the development of small-scale economic activities, particularly the production of food, to support local income generation and the production of intermediate goods and services for rural hinterlands.

7.20 All cities, particularly those characterized by severe sustainable development problems, should in accordance with national laws, rules and regulations develop and strengthen programmes aimed at addressing such problems and guiding their development along a sustainable path. Some international initiatives in support of such efforts as in the Sustainable Cities Programme of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) and the Healthy Cities Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO) should be intensified. Additional initiatives involving the World Bank, the regional development banks and bilateral agencies as well as other interested stakeholders, particularly international and national representatives of local authorities should be strengthened and coordinated. Individual cities should, as appropriate:

(a) Institutionalize a participatory approach to sustainable urban development, based on a continuous dialogue between the actors involved in urban development (public sector, private sector and communities), especially women and indigenous people;

(b) Improve the urban environment by promoting social organization and environmental awareness through the participation of local communities in the identification of public services needs, the provision of urban infrastructure, the enhancement of public amenities and the protection and/or rehabilitation of older buildings, historic precincts and other cultural artifacts. In addition, "green works" programmes should be activated to create self-sustaining human development activities and both formal and informal employment opportunities for low-income urban residents;

(c) Strengthen the capacities of their local governing bodies to deal more effectively with the broad range of developmental and environmental challenges associated with rapid and sound urban growth through comprehensive approaches to planning which recognize the individual needs of cities and which are based on ecologically sound urban design practices;

(d) Participate in international "sustainable city networks" to exchange experiences and mobilize national and international technical and financial support;

(e) Promote the formulation of environmentally sound and culturally sensitive tourism programmes as a strategy of sustainable development of urban and rural settlements and as a way of decentralizing urban development, and of reducing discrepancies among regions;

(f) Establish mechanisms with the assistance of relevant international agencies to mobilize resources for local initiatives for improvements in environmental quality;

(g) Empower community groups, non-governmental organizations and individuals to assume the authority and responsibility for managing and enhancing their immediate environment through participatory tools, techniques and approaches embodied in the concept of environmental care.

7.21 Cities of all countries should reinforce cooperation among themselves and cities of the developed countries, under the aegis of non-governmental organizations active in this field, such as the International Union of Local Authorities (IULA), the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) and the World Federation of Twin Cities.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.22 The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about $100 billion, including about $15 billion from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order of magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation; (b) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.23 Developing countries should, with appropriate international assistance, consider focusing on training and developing a cadre of urban managers, technicians, administrators and other relevant stakeholders needed to successfully manage environmentally sound urban development and growth and equipped with the skills necessary to analyze and adapt innovative experiences of other cities. For this purpose, the full range of training methods - from formal education to the use of the mass media - should be utilized, as well as the "learning by doing" option.

7.24 Developing countries should also encourage technological training and research through joint efforts by donors, non-governmental organizations and private business in such area4 as the reduction of waste, water quality, saving of energy, safe production of chemicals and less polluting transportation.

7.25 Capacity-building activities carried out by all countries, assisted as suggested above, should go beyond the training of individuals and functional groups to include institutional arrangements, administrative routines, inter-agency linkages, information flows and consultative processes.

7.26 In addition, international efforts such as the Urban Management Programme, in cooperation with multilateral and bilateral agencies, should continue to assist the developing countries in their efforts to develop a participatory structure by mobilizing the human resources of the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the poor, particularly women and the disadvantaged.

C. Promoting sustainable land use planning and management

Basis for action

7.27 Access to land resources is an essential component of sustainable low impact lifestyles. Land resources are the basis for (human) living systems and provide soil, energy, water and the opportunity for all human activity. In rapidly growing urban areas, access to land is rendered increasingly difficult by the conflicting demands of industry, housing, commerce, agriculture, land tenure structures and the need for open spaces. Furthermore, the rising costs of urban land prevent the poor from gaining access to suitable land. In rural areas, unsustainable practices, such as the exploitation of marginal lands and the encroachment on forests and ecologically fragile areas by commercial interests and landless rural populations, result in environmental degradation as well as in diminishing returns for impoverished rural settlers.


7.28 The objective is to provide for the land requirements of human settlement development through environmentally sound physical planning and land use so as to ensure access to land to all households and where appropriate, the encouragement of communally and collectively owned and managed land. Particular attention should be paid to the needs of women, and indigenous people for economic and cultural reasons.


7.29 All countries should consider, as appropriate, undertaking a comprehensive national inventory of their land resources in order to establish a land information system in which land resources will be classified according to their most appropriate uses and environmentally fragile or disaster-prone areas will be identified for special protection measures.

7.30 Subsequently, all countries should consider developing national land-resource management plans to guide land-resource development and utilization as follows:

(a) Establish, as appropriate, national legislation to guide the implementation of public policies for environmentally sound urban development, land utilization, housing and for the improved management of urban expansion;

(b) Create, where appropriate, efficient and accessible land markets which meet community development needs by, inter alia, improving land registry systems and streamlining procedures in land transactions;

(c) Develop fiscal incentives and land-use control measures, including land-use planning solutions for a more rational and environmentally sound use of limited land resources;

(d) Encourage partnerships among the public, private and community sectors in managing land resources for human settlements development;

(e) Strengthen community-based land-resource protection practices in existing urban and rural settlements;

(f) Establish appropriate forms of land tenure which provide security of tenure for all land-users, especially indigenous people, women, local communities, the low-income urban dwellers and the rural poor;

(g) Accelerate efforts to promote access to land by the urban and rural poor, including credit schemes for the purchase of land and for building/acquiring or improving safe and healthy shelter and infrastructure services;

(h) Develop and support the implementation of improved land management practices which deal comprehensively with potentially competing land requirements for agriculture, industry, transport, urban development, green spaces, preserves and other vital needs;

(i) Promote understanding among the policy makers of the adverse consequences of unplanned settlements in environmentally vulnerable areas and of the appropriate national and local land use and settlements policies required for this purpose.

7.31 At the international level, global coordination of land resource management activities should be strengthened by the various bilateral and multilateral agencies and programmes such as UNDP, FAO, the World Bank, the regional development banks, other interested organizations and the UNDP/World Bank/United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) Urban Management Programme, and action taken to promote the transfer of applicable experience on sustainable land-management practices to and among developing countries.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.32 The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about $3 billion, including about $300 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order of magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation;

(b) Scientific and technological means

7.33 All countries, particularly developing countries, alone or in regional or subregional groupings, should be given access to modern techniques of land-resource management, such as geographical information systems, satellite photography/imagery and other remote-sensing technologies.

(c) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.34 Environmentally focused training activities in sustainable land resources planning and management should be undertaken in all countries with developing countries being given assistance through international support and funding agencies in order to:

(a) Strengthen the capacity of national, state/provincial, and local educational research and training institutions to provide formal training of land management technicians and professionals;

(b) Facilitate the organizational review of government ministries and agencies responsible for land questions, in order to devise more efficient mechanisms of land-resource management, and carry out periodic in-service refresher courses for their managers and staff in order to familiarize them with up-to-date land-resource management technologies;

(c) Where appropriate, equip those agencies with modern equipment, such as computer hardware and software and survey equipment;

(d) Strengthen existing programmes and promote an international and interregional exchange of information and experience in land management through the establishment of professional associations in land management sciences and related activities, such as workshops and seminars.

D. Promoting the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure: water, sanitation, drainage and solid waste management

Basis for action

7.35 The sustainability of urban development is defined by many parameters relating to the availability of water supplies, air quality and the provision of environmental infrastructure for sanitation and waste management. As a result of the density of users, urbanization, if properly managed, offers unique opportunities for the supply of sustainable environmental infrastructure through adequate pricing policies, educational programmes and equitable access mechanisms which are economically and environmentally sound. In most developing countries, however, the inadequacy and lack of environmental infrastructure is responsible for widespread ill-health, and a large number of preventable deaths each year. In those countries conditions are set to worsen due to growing needs beyond governments' capability to respond adequately.

7.36 An integrated approach to the provision of environmentally sound infrastructure in human settlements, in particular for the urban and rural poor, is an investment in sustainable development which can result in improvement to the quality of life, increase productivity, improve health and reduce the burden of investments in curative medicine and poverty alleviation.

7.37 Most of the activities whose management would be improved by an integrated approach, are covered in Agenda 21 as follows: chapters 6 (Protection and promotion of human health conditions), 9 (Protecting the atmosphere), 18 (Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources) and 21 (Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues).


7.38 The objective is to ensure the provision of adequate environmental infrastructure facilities in all settlements by the year 2025. The achievement of this objective would require that all developing countries incorporate in their national strategies programmes to build the necessary technical, financial and human resource capacity aimed at ensuring better integration of infrastructure and environmental planning by the year 2000.


7.39 All countries should assess the environmental suitability of infrastructure in human settlements, develop national goals for sustainable management of waste, and implement environmentally sound technology to ensure that the environment, human health and quality of life are protected. Settlement infrastructure and environmental programmes designed to promote an integrated human settlements approach to the planning, development, maintenance and management of environmental infrastructure (water supply, sanitation, drainage, solid waste management) should be strengthened with the assistance of bilateral and multilateral agencies. Coordination among these agencies and with collaboration from international and national representatives of local authorities, the private sector, and community groups should also be strengthened. The activities of all agencies engaged in providing environmental infrastructure should, where possible, reflect an ecosystem or metropolitan area approach to settlements and should include monitoring, applied research, capacity-building, transfer of appropriate technology and technical cooperation among the range of programme activities.

7.40 Developing countries should be assisted at the national and local levels in adopting an integrated approach to the provision of water supply, energy, sanitation, drainage and solid waste management and external funding agencies should ensure that this approach is applied in particular to environmental infrastructure improvement in informal settlements based on regulations and standards that take into account the living conditions and resources of the communities to be served.

7.41 All countries should, as appropriate, adopt the following principles for the provision of environmental infrastructure:

(a) Adopt policies that minimize if not altogether avoid environmental damage, whenever possible;

(b) Ensure that relevant decisions are preceded by environmental impact assessments and also take into account the costs of any ecological consequences;

(c) Promote development in accordance with indigenous practices and adopt technologies appropriate to local conditions;

(d) Promote policies aimed at recovering the actual cost of infrastructure services, while at the same time recognizing the need to find suitable approaches (including subsidies) to extend basic services to all households;

(e) Seek joint solutions to environmental problems which affect several localities.

7.42 The dissemination of information from existing programmes should be facilitated and encouraged among interested countries and local institutions.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.43 The Conference secretariat has estimated most of the costs of implementing the activities of this programme in other chapters. The secretariat estimates the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of technical assistance from the international community on grant or concessional terms to be about $50 million. These are indicative and order of magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation;

(b) Scientific and technological means

7.44 Scientific and technological means within the existing programmes should be coordinated wherever possible and should:

(a) Accelerate research in the area of integrated policies of environmental infrastructure programmes and projects based on cost-benefit analysis and overall environmental impact;

(b) Promote methods of assessing "effective demand", utilizing environmental and developmental data as criteria for technology choice.

(c) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.45 With the assistance and support of f
Agenda 21 in Your Country
Countryname            Region
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Ecuador             South America
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Guinea                         Africa
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Kenya                         Africa
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Macau Asia
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South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands South America
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Sudan                         Africa
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Swaziland             Africa
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Switzerland             Europe
Syria                         Middle East
Taiwan                         Asia
Tajikistan             Asia
Tanzania             Africa
Thailand             Asia
Timor-Leste (East Timor) Australasia
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Uzbekistan             Asia
Vanuatu             Australasia
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Virgin Islands             Caribbean
Wallis and Futuna Islands Australasia
Yemen                         Middle East
Zambia                         Africa
Zimbabwe             Africa